December 23, 2008

Top climatologist Dr. James Hansen calls for less coal and less meat to stop global warming.


SupremeMasterTV.com


At a recent interfaith climate summit in Uppsala, Sweden, Dr. James Hansen called for the phasing out of fossil fuels through strong government actions. He explained what the goals would be for world leaders during an interview with Supreme Master Television.

Dr. James Hansen – Top world climatologist, Director, US Goddard Spaceflight Center, NASA (M): We have to actually reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere; it’s already increased to about 385 parts per million. If we want to stop the warming and stop the melting of more ice, we are going to have to reduce the CO2 at least back to 350 ppm, and perhaps even somewhat lower. That’s a tall order; it requires phasing out the coal emissions but it also means that we are going to need to improve our agricultural and forestry practices.

VOICE: Like many scientists have affirmed, eliminating carbon-based fuels will have far-reaching benefits on the economy, as well as the health of the planet and its inhabitants. While continuing to call for bold government policies to make this happen,

Dr. Hansen also shared what ordinary citizens could do to help.

Dr. Hansen (M): There are many things that people can do to reduce their carbon emissions, but changing your light bulb and many of the things are much less effective than changing your diet, because if you eat further down on the food chain rather than animals, which have produced many greenhouse gases, and used much energy in the process of growing that meat, you can actually make a bigger contribution in that way than just about anything. So, that, in terms of individual action, is perhaps the best thing you can do.

VOICE: We join you, Dr. Hansen, in your call to leaders and citizens to preserve our Earthly home, and thank you for continuing to be a voice for courageous and constructive actions, including the shift toward the plant-based diet. May the environment be restored for all the future generations to come.

Dr. Hansen (M): Greetings to Supreme Master TV. My message to you is: Be Veg, Go Green, Save the Planet. 

European Parliament conference addresses the meat impact on climate change, world hunger and animal rights.


SupremeMasterTV.com



European Parliament conference addresses the meat impact on climate change, world hunger and animal rights. “Feeding the World under the Climate Threat?” was the question posed in the forum on November 12 to 13 that was hosted by Swedish Member of the European Parliament and vegetarian Jens Holm. International experts discussed the harmful impact of mass-producing livestock on the environment and vulnerable populations.

Jens Holm – Swedish Member of European Parliament, Vegetarian: The greatest impact you actually could do, that would be to reduce your meat consumption or stop eating meat totally. You would create a surplus of crops that could be used to feed the people who are starving today.

VOICE: The conference addressed potential measures from the European Union to tackle the animal agriculture sector’s increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

Jens Holm : Today, European subsidies going directly to advertisement campaigns for meat consumption. It should be the other way around. We should have awareness campaigns for vegetarian consumption, because that is the solution.

VOICE: It’s the solution not only for solving hunger and climate change, but according to Parliament member Holm, who is also a staunch animal advocate, vegetarianism protects countless animal lives.

Jens Holm : My hope for the children of the future is that they can live in a world which is in accordance to nature; also in accordance with the animals so that we don’t breed animals; we don’t transport animals, of course we don’t kill the animals.

VOICE: Supreme Master Ching Hai has often mentioned that compared to other proposed solutions for climate change, none is as effective – and lives-saving – as the adoption of the meatless diet.

Videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai Climate Change International Conference July 26, 2008 – West Hollywood, California, USA

Supreme Master Ching Hai: I know we also plant trees and a little technology here and there, and changing some bulbs and all that, and turn off the light one hour here and there. These also help but very little compared to the blessing merit of vegetarian and vegan diet. Because once they turn their heart into this compassionate direction, the compassionate and loving energy that generates is enormous.


November 5, 2008

One-third of world fish catch used for animal feed




Fish fed to farmed animals threaten the ocean’s ecosystem. The results of a nine-year study by the Institute for Ocean Conservation Science at Stony Brook University and the University of British Columbia found that an alarming 28 million tons of ocean fish are currently being ground up and fed to factory-farmed fish, pigs and chickens.

Dr. Ellen K. Pikitch of Stony Brook University stated, “…It’s an enormous percentage of the world’s fish catch. Skyrocketing pressure on small wild fishes may be putting entire marine food webs at great risk.” Dr. Pikitch and colleagues, we deeply appreciate these research findings. Our prayers for humanity’s soon awareness of the need to rebalance the global ecosystem through such quickly restoring measures as the plant-based diet.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2008/10/29/eafish129.xml

October 29, 2008

Reducing livestock to counter global warming.

Research by Briton Dr. Andy Thorpe of University of Portsmouth has found that methane emissions are playing a more significant role in global warming, as their proportion is on the rise.

Compared to CO2, which has increased by 31 percent during the past 250 years, methane has increased by 149 percent during the same period. Moreover, methane is far more potent, trapping 72 times more heat than CO2 over a 20 year period. Dr. Thorpe stated, "Methane emission growth… has been increasing exponentially within the developing world due to rising incomes [causing] increased demand for meat proteins and developed countries sourcing meat from developing markets." Dr. Thorpe suggested reducing methane emissions via livestock down-sizing and corresponding reduced meat consumption.

At the same time, he also warns against shifting from eating meat to fish, saying that this would be devastating to the ocean ecosystems.

http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/emissions-from-burping-cows-higher-than-family-car-967995.html

Government advisor: eat less meat to tackle climate changewarming.

The United Kingdom's Professor Tim Lang, who formulated the concept of food miles, recently stated the world may be eating its way to starvation through inefficient and energy-intensive ways of producing food. Saying that food policy can be used to reverse global warming, the City University professor encouraged people to grow their own food and eat using fewer resources, stating,

"We need to lobby government for change, eat less meat and fewer dairy products, and garden more." 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2008/10/15/eafood115.xml

October 28, 2008

Arctic is melting even in Winter

Arctic ice now melting even in winter. In a study conducted by the Centre for Polar Observation, satellite data collected by UK researcher Dr. Kathrine Giles has found that the ice has continued to thin during what is normally the winter season for the thickening in the Arctic.
 
Moreover, the cause of the melting is very alarming. Because the air temperature has been cold enough for the ice to freeze, the thinning ice through the winter is most likely due to warming waters or changes in the circulation of the ocean, meaning that the Arctic ice cap may disappear more quickly than originally predicted.

“This is one of the most serious problems the world has ever faced.”

   - Peter Wadhams, professor of ocean physics at Cambridge University

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article5014744.ece

October 19, 2008

Canadian Parliament Member speaks candidly on global warming.




Recently, Parliament Member Glen Pearson of the Liberal Party of Canada gave a presentation on “An Inconvenient Truth,” the engaging lecture designed by Nobel Peace Prize-winning environmentalist Al Gore, on the dire climate changes occurring around the world.

Glen Pearson, Parliament Member, Canada (M): It’s increasing; you can’t deny it.
You can see that precipitation around the globe is going to increase in many areas. The two hardest hit areas are going to be Canada and Russia. During all of those 160,000 years hardly any species loss. And just in the last couple of decades, look what we’ve done.

VOICE: Glen Pearson and his wife recently adopted 3 children from Darfur, Sudan. He thus brought to the presentation first-hand information on environmental refugees based on his families’ frequent visits to the region.

Glen Pearson MP (M): This is Lake Chad. You see it starts in 1963. Just in that period of time it was gone. We were in South Sudan this year; we found 100,000 Darfur refugees who suddenly just showed up at our doorstep because they had no water. They weren’t fleeing persecution or war. They had nothing to live on.

VOICE: Following his speech, Mr. Pearson answered a question on curbing the meat industry to help reduce devastating global warming effects such as these. He stated that a main source of this solution lay in the voice of citizens.

Glen Pearson MP (M): The [meat] industry is so strong and the lobby is so strong, that’s where the real difficulty is coming from. I think people have been talking about this in Ottawa; we’ve been hearing about it. My wife became a vegetarian at the Earth Summit in 1992. Should we determine that these are things that we want to do something about, what political party is going to tackle that particular lobby group? If people come to us and give us these things and say, “We want you to take action on this,” this is how we know as a party we can’t get away with it.

For more information about Canadian Parliament Member Glen Pearson, please visit glenpearson.liberal.ca 

Global warming visually affects Mount Rainier.

The US national park, widely admired for its meadows of alpine asters and purple lupines, is now being overtaken by trees. The National Park Service attributes the change to decreased snowfall due to global warming, which reduces the snowpack needed for open meadow areas. Botanist Dr. Regina Rochefort, a science adviser at the National Park Service who has been studying the process since the early 1990s said, “We are trying to get a better handle on what changes we will see, where we will see the most rapid changes and how we can use that information to help manage parks.”

We thank Dr. Rochefort and National Park Service scientists for sharing this observation of humans’ effect on the balance of nature. May we quickly make more eco-friendly choices to preserve the colorful diversity and beauty of our Earth.

http://www.thenewstribune.com/front/topphoto/story/496324.html

World coral reefs in dramatic decline.

Like many of the ocean’s coral reefs, Latin America’s Chitales, which stretches from Cancun, Mexico to Honduras, is losing life at an alarming rate. Climate change, which warms the oceans and makes them more acidic, is one reason for the decline, while pollution from agricultural runoff and waste along with overfishing is said to be speeding it even more. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network reports that across the Caribbean, in just the last three decades, living coral has diminished by 80%. Beside their remarkable beauty, coral reefs serve as buffers to coastal cities during hurricanes and are irreplaceable nurseries for fish.

Our appreciation, Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and all who are working to save these uniquely precious marine treasures. May humanity further appreciate the interconnectedness of all life and act quickly to restore our planet.

http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSTRE48T01G20080930  

October 6, 2008

Vegetarianism should be promoted for health and the planet.

On Saturday, the Finnish environmental organization Dodo organized a seminar called “Megapolis 2023 – Happy Cities,” which brought together world leaders and media interested in designing wholesome urban regions. An important consideration discussed during the forum was climate change.

Aleksi Neuvonen, Megapolis Seminar organizer (M): The idea here is to bring new ideas about cities and the way cities can promote better environments and finding solutions to great environmental threats we are soon to face.

Enrique Peñalosa – Advisor of urban strategies, former Mayor of Bogotá, Colombia (M): The same policies that you would create to implement to create good mobility, the same policies that you would create to improve quality of life, are the same policies which are good for the environment and for sustainability and for global warming.

VOICE: Speaking on the theme of “happiness” of city residents was Heidi Hautala, Member of Finnish Parliament and vegetarian entrepreneur who established one of the country’s first meat-free restaurants.

Heidi Hautala – Member of Finnish Parliament (Vegetarian) (F): If we look at 3 areas where we can improve our lifestyles and reduce our ecological footprint the most, I would say that these areas are housing, transport and food. In terms of food, we can certainly reduce our ecological footprint on this planet very much by reducing dramatically the amount of animal food that we take.

Certainly we could reduce serving meat in our workplace, canteens, schools and hospitals – quite drastically, with very good impact, and also maybe saving some money which is scarce today in public services.


October 3, 2008

Greenhouse gas emissions still rising.

 Despite an economic decline, a 3% increase in carbon dioxide emissions from 2006-2007 has been observed, which surpasses the worst case scenario predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Along with predictions of an 11 degree Fahrenheit global temperature increase by the end of the century, scientists also report that forest and ocean absorption of carbon dioxide have decreased. Dr. Richard Moss, Vice President and Managing Director for climate change at the World Wildlife Fund, said “We should be worried -- really worried. This is happening in the context of trying to reduce emissions.”
Dr. Moss, World Wildlife Fund and other scientists, we are thankful for this eye-opening report. We pray that all people awaken to this most urgent matter of our time and step quickly toward Earth-saving practices to preserve the lives of all beings.
 
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-warming26-2008sep26,0,5554637.story http://www.democracynow.org/2008/9/26/headlines#6 http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbontrends/index_new.htm http://www.globalchange.umd.edu/staff/rmoss/  

Choose veggies over meat to save water.

Weather experts in Formosa (Taiwan) recently noted that rainfall patterns have changed. While the volume of rain per day has increased, the total number of rainy days has fallen. As a result of this climate change, both floods and droughts occur more frequently in Formosa and worldwide. With increased droughts, water conservation efforts have become a priority, demanding collective efforts. Formosa’s Water Resources Agency wants the public to consider the comprehensive, or hidden cost of water in daily life.

Dr. Chen Shen Hsien - Director General of Water Resources Agency, Formosa (Taiwan) (M): If we add up the water used to produce what we eat and use, then the amount is enormous. If we can eat less meat to reduce the amount of meat production, we will reduce gas emissions and thus slow down the climate warming effect or protect the water resources

One factory farm creates more pollution than the city of Houston, Texas.

A US General Accounting Office report found that a single factory farm produces 1.6 million tons of manure each year, which in turn contaminates local water resources through runoff into streams, rivers and lakes. Often these water bodies are no longer safe for swimming, drinking or as wildlife habitat due to bacteria and excessive chemicals. A recent report by the Pew Commission concluded that measures to curtail factory farming are necessary to prevent further damage to water supplies and the environment, along with accelerated global warming.
US General Accounting Office and Pew Commission, we are grateful for these informative studies that help us understand the urgency of our situation. May we all join together to revive our beautiful Earth’s sustainability through such quickly effective practices as the ecologically sound plant-based diet. 
http://www.thedailygreen.com/healthy-eating/eat-safe/factory-farms-47092401?src=syn&dom=yah_buzz&mag=tdg&ha=1&kw=ist


Argentina endures its worst drought of the century.

Argentina endures its worst drought of the century.

Thus far in 2008, Argentina has received fewer than 200 millimeters (7.9 inches) of rain, which is less than a third of the nation’s normal precipitation at this point in the year. Along with 15% of the region’s cattle having perished, the drought is also affecting farming sectors. Mr. Sixto Periche of the National Institute of Farming Technology stated, “We are almost at the limit of the last date that we can plant sunflowers. If it doesn’t rain this week, they won’t plant sunflowers.”

We pray for God’s grace and the blessing of rain to ease the plight of the Argentinean people. May these conditions serve as a reminder of our need to walk swiftly toward practices that help heal our Mother Earth.

http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/09/26/argentina.drought/index.html

Arctic methane release raises concern for runaway global warming

Arctic methane release raises concern for runaway global warming.

Scientists aboard a Russian research ship along the coast of Siberia recently discovered an extensive oceanic area releasing methane; at amounts 100 times normal for the area.  Scientists believe undersea methane in the Arctic is held in check by frozen permafrost, which is now melting as the Arctic has been rapidly warming. Dr. Örjan Gustafsson of Sweden’s Stockholm University, who was onboard the vessel, stated, “Yesterday, for the first time, we documented a field where the release was so intense that the methane did not have time to dissolve into the seawater but was rising as methane bubbles to the sea surface." Methane released into the atmosphere is up to 72 times more potent than CO2 over a 20 year period, and could thus cause accelerated global warming that would be much more difficult to control.

Supreme Master Ching Hai Video Archive:December 25, 2007 - Paris Seminar

We have to save this planet, so that we’ll be able to stay, first. 
Because if the ice all melt, if all the poles all melt out, and then if the sea is warm,
then the gas might be released from the ocean, and we might all be poisoned. It’s a lot of gas.

If you see the Singapore lecture, I already warned that we have to change the way we live, otherwise it’s  too late. It was 10 or 15 years. Or before that, I always talk about how we deforest our planet, yah? Meat eating and all that contributes to a lot of damage to our Earth planet, you know.

Scientists say many things. They are listening now, but I just hope they do it fast.  It just takes action. All the governments in the world really take it now seriously. It’s just I’m worried
the action might be too slow, that’s all. 

Because the ice reflecting the sun, you see, so send it back into the space, but the ice is melting
so fast now, that there’s not enough reflection and because the sea is already warm, it melts the ice. And because the ice melt, the sea warmer. You see what I mean,
the cycle?

The way it is going, if they don’t fix it, 4 or 5 years time, finito. No more. It’s really that urgent.




We are grateful for your advisement of these alarming facts, Dr. Gustafsson and colleagues. We pray for humanity’s response through planet-saving practices such as the plant-based diet to quickly halt these warming trends. 

http://www.independent.co.uk:80/news/science/exclusive-the-methane-time-bomb-938932.html, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080918192943.htm

Heat waves decrease plants’ ability to absorb CO2.

Heat waves decrease plants’ ability to absorb CO2. 

A four-year study led by the Desert Research Institute in Nevada, USA simulated heat wave conditions by growing grassland plants in large climate-controlled chambers. The researchers found that grasslands subjected to heat waves for the equivalent of a one-year growing period had a 63 percent decrease in their ability to absorb carbon dioxide for that year, and even a year later had significantly reduced ability to absorb CO2. Naturally growing grasslands normally serve as major carbon sinks, absorbing significant amounts of CO2 to help alleviate the effects of global warming.

Desert Research Institute, we are grateful for these insights into the challenges we face as planetary temperatures continue to warm due to climate change. We pray for quick global action to preserve all lives on our wonderful Earth. 

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/36532/title/
Heat_waves_stunt_grassland_growth
   

Acidic oceans may catalyze mass extinctions.

Acidic oceans may catalyze mass extinctions. 

Addressing a writer’s conference in Brisbane, Australia, Ms. Alanna Mitchell, author of a book called “Seasick” and scientist Dr. Charlie Vernon, former chief scientist with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, outlined how carbon dioxide emissions are acidifying the world’s oceans. Dr. Vernon explained that without intervention, a continuation of the already-escalating process would cause a tipping point to be surpassed. After this, massive extinctions on Earth would occur. Ms. Mitchell noted, “If everything on land were to die tomorrow, the ocean wouldn't even notice, but if everything in the ocean were to die tomorrow, everything on land would also die.”

Ms. Mitchell and Dr. Vernon, we deeply appreciate your honesty in further revealing the dire state of our planet. Our prayers that actions worldwide will quickly reduce our carbon footprint and help return the oceans and our Earth to a more pristine state.

http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0,22606,24381178-5006301,00.html?from=public_rss   

European Parliament members report on livestock and climate change.

European Parliament members report on livestock and climate change.

Jens Holm is a Member of the European Parliament from Sweden, serving on Committees for the environment, climate change and international trade. A defender of animal welfare and global justice, Mr. Holm is also the author of a series of articles speaking out about the hazards of the meat industry on the climate. His 2007 report, “The Livestock and the Climate,” took a in-depth look at the costs of meat consumption in terms of finances, natural resources and greenhouse gas emissions.

Jens Holm – Member of European Parliament from Sweden, Vegetarian (M): Vegetarian food is not only good for the climate, it’s also good of course for the animals and for your own health. The problem though is that a lot of public money, mine and your taxpayers’ money, is actually used to subsidize the meat industry. There are also money directly going to marketing meat, to promote a meat lifestyle.

VOICE: Mr. Holm suggests that governments would be better advised to spend money on informing citizens about the benefits of a vegetarian diet. This could be done through public facilities ranging from elementary schools to centers for care of the elderly.

Jens Holm (M): Probably the biggest step a person could take is to reduce the consumption of meat and other animal products. And if you really want to become climate-friendly, well then you should become vegetarian and stop eating meat totally.
But also, we should be active in politics and in organizations, and make sure that our governments and political parties do what they have to do, and that is not to subsidize the meat industry, promote vegetarian food, for instance.

For more information about the report co-issued by European Parliament Member Jens Holm, please visit www.jensholm.se/english

VOICE: We appreciate your wise leadership and wholeheartedly support your views, Mr. Holm. May leaders and fellow citizens alike take the courageous steps to be informed and to be vegetarian for the quickest benefit to all beings on our Earth.

Australian leaders receive Awards from Supreme Master Ching Hai

Australian leaders receive Awards from Supreme Master Ching Hai.

In response to Australia’s prolonged water shortage and high levels of methane emissions from livestock, two Australian leaders have been working courageously to make a difference. They are former Senator Andrew Bartlett and State Parliament Member for Indooroopilly Ronan Lee, both from Queensland, Australia.

SupremeMasterTV to Sen. Bartlett: “You spoke up about the link between meat consumption and environmental and greenhouse pollution, and called on all Australians to urgently change to a plant-based diet. For displaying such fearless leadership…”

VOICE: Senator Bartlett received the Shining World Leadership Award, and Parliament Member Ronan Lee received the Shining World Hero Award from Supreme Master Ching Hai.

SupremeMasterTV to MP Lee: In recognition of courageously promoting the vegetarian diet, compassionately advancing conservation for our precious water resources, lighting the way to a nobler future for all of Earth’s inhabitants.

SupremeMasterTV  to Sen. Bartlett: On behalf of Supreme Master Ching Hai, I wish to present you the Shining World Leadership Award.

Andrew Bartlett – Senator (1997-2008), Queensland Australia, (Vegan) (M): Very impressive. Thank you very much for that.

Ronan Lee – State Parliament Member for Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia (Vegetarian) (M): The first thing to say is thank you. It’s a humbling experience.

VOICE: Both vegetarians themselves, the two were the first in their assemblies to publicly recognize that reducing meat consumption is a major solution to curb global warming.

Senator Andrew Bartlett (M): It’s just the undeniability of the science behind it. I’ve long promoted the animal rights approach, and that’s one justification for people having less animal products in their diet. The environmental argument is equally compelling. Such a significant component of greenhouse emissions was just being ignored because it’s socially or politically awkward.

 For more information on Mr. Andrew Bartlett, please visit: andrewbartlett.com

Ronan Lee – State Parliament Member for Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia (M): In no way would I consider that one speech made a huge difference, but clearly one speech got people thinking. People started to think about their consumption of food. And I’m noticing it among my colleagues, but also I’m noticing that there’s been a change in State government strategy on food. The State government now endorses what’s called the “Low Carbon Diet.”

For more information on Ronan Lee MP, please visit: www.ronanleemp.com

VOICE: Along with the award plaque, the two leaders received gifts including Supreme Master Ching Hai’s #1 international bestselling books, “The Dogs in My Life,” “The Birds in My Life,” and “The Noble Wilds.” We applaud the brave and noble leadership of our heroes Mr. Bartlett and Mr. Lee. May your endeavors and personal examples continue to be a shining light for leaders and co-citizens of Australia and the world.

Korean Democratic Labor Party leader calls for switch to plant-based diet.

Korean Democratic Labor Party leader calls for switch to plant-based diet. 

Widely admired for his integrity and commitment to agriculture, food safety and public health, South Korean Senator and head of the Democratic Labor Party, Gang Gi-Gap also practices a vegetarian lifestyle daily as much as possible. Supreme Master Television had the chance to speak with Senator Gang about his reasons for choosing a plant-centered diet.

Gang Gi-Gap – Senator, Head of Democratic Labor Party in South Korea (M): As I’ve continued eating vegetarian for a long time, I’ve realized that a vegetarian life is the environment-friendly and eco-friendly diet. If we go vegetarian and eat foods containing a lot of green, life-sustaining elements, we will have more abundant vitality.

VOICE: Also compelling to Senator Gang is the need to ease the global food crisis as well as the moral duty to protect and amicably co-exist with other life forms such as the animals. The former vegetable farmer further discussed the higher cost of animal farming on global warming.

Senator Gang Gi-Gap (M): In the case of the meat diet, a comparatively great deal of CO2 gas is generated from animal raising as well as the excretions of animals, and this amount is extremely serious. So, at least starting now, we humans need to make a great change in our lives. And I think the political parties should reflect on this and be enlightened first.

VOICE: We applaud Senator Gang for his genuine concern for co-citizens as well as the animals and the Earth. May all of society share the farmer’s natural love and nurturing of life, to ensure our own survival and the vitality of our planetary home. 

October 2, 2008

Scientists find climate change on Mars resembles Antarctica.

Scientists find climate change on Mars resembles Antarctica. 

In studying more than 1,000 high resolution images sent back from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, researchers around the globe are seeing a distinct similarity between the distant planet’s gullies and craters and a region on the Earth’s Antarctic known as McMurdo Dry Valleys. The changes on Mars appear to have taken place as recently as a few hundred thousand years ago, giving credence to the idea that Mars is still a dynamically evolving planet. Besides these similarities, researchers are also hoping that further studies of Mars will reveal more about the Earth’s formation.

Our accolades, NASA and scientists for these latest discoveries! We look forward to an ever more expanded understanding of our Earth and the universe around us.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1058154/Amazing-dunes-reveal-climate-changes-Mars.html, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080828171703.htm, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2989625/NASA-releases-new-images-of-Mars.html 

VOICE: The following is an excerpt from a  videoconference in which Supreme Master Ching Hai shared her valuable advice and revealed further insights into the mysteries of our universe.

Videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai with Supreme Master Television staff
Los Angeles, California, USA – July 31, 2008

SupremeMasterTV (M): Some exciting new data has been sent back by NASA’s spacecraft currently circling around Mars, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Pictures revealed that Mars once had diverse forms of water such as lakes and rivers – wet environments that might have supported life for thousands or even millions of years. Geologists have identified similar landforms between Mars and Alaska, such as evidence of ice avalanches which are now occurring more frequently in Alaska, most likely due to global warming. Master, you have spoken on several occasions about the parallels between the histories of Mars and Earth. Is it true that Mars experienced climate change at the hands of its inhabitants like our planet? Did the Martians have a chance to save their planet?
 
Supreme Master Ching Hai : They did have. The warning came like 20 or 30 years Earth time to them. The last urgent signs they had were about five years before the destruction. They did have a chance, but they did not do it.

SupremeMasterTV (M): Why is that, Master?

Supreme Master Ching Hai :  Because they did not know about the vegetarian diet that could change. At that moment, there were not enough people to stand up and communicate the urgency of the planet as well as the solution, like the vegetarian diet, the way we are doing now.

SupremeMasterTV (M): And Master, how about our planet, do people know the chance?

Supreme Master Ching Hai : : There are some people who don’t know what to do. And of course some people who know what to do because we inform them or the United Nations inform them or the scientists inform them, but they still did not change their habit. So, if we continue not changing our habit, then the planet will be destroyed, just the way Mars has been destroyed.

Supreme Master Ching Hai :  Right now, we are doing a lot of things; we inform people and distributing leaflets and all that, but we will have to rely on Heaven’s grace if we are to survive.

Videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai
with Formosa (Taiwan) press - October 25, 2007

Chen: Just now you mentioned that Mars was like the Earth in the past. At present, the most popular topic under discussion in the world is the issue of global warming.

Supreme Master Ching Hai :  Right.

Chen: So is this a really serious problem? Will the Earth really face the end of the world?

Supreme Master Ching Hai :  It is serious. If we don’t find ways to improve, it’ll be serious, and very soon, sooner than we can imagine.

Plants discovered to communicate change.

Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado, USA have found that plants reacting to stressors such as drought and high temperatures release a chemical that resembles aspirin into the air. This substance not only boosts the plant’s defenses against injury, it is now thought to signal nearby plants of danger. Researcher Alex Guenther said, “These findings show tangible proof that plant-to-plant communication occurs on the ecosystem level. It appears that plants have the ability to communicate through the atmosphere.”

In a videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai on February 7, 2008, she shared the following:

Videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai with Supreme Master Television staff
Los Angeles, California, USA – February 7, 2008

Supreme Master Ching Hai : It's a very rare gift.  And it's a very beautiful jewel.  It exists because it's due to exceptional good merit of all its co-inhabitants, namely humans, animals, even minerals and plants, trees. 

If we really appreciate this planet.  All of the co-inhabitants must continue in a meritorious way so that, we can keep it and enjoy the planet. 

What an illuminating concept! Our appreciation, Dr. Guenther and colleagues at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, for this glimpse into the intricacy of our beautiful biosphere! May your findings remind us to be more considerate stewards of our shared planetary home.  

September 25, 2008

Tragic Results of Meat Eating



Some of the Tragic Results of Meat Eating:

Research has shown that eating meat can cause some of the following diseases:

  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Stroke
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Bladder cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Prostate and ovarian cancer
  • Lung, skin and kidney cancer
  • Breast cancer.
  • Blue tongue disease
  • E coli
  • Salmonella (over 2300 types possible)
  • Bird flu
  • Mad cow disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)
  • Pig's disease (PMWS)
  • Shellfish poisoning
  • Listeriosis
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Campylobacter
PLUS MORE…

SOME OF THE COSTS OF MEAT EATING:

HEART DISEASE
  • Over 17 million lives lost globally each year
  • Cost of cardiovascular disease is at least US$1 trillion a year
CANCER
  • Over 1 million new colon cancer patients diagnosed each year
  • More than 600,000 colon cancer-related mortalities annually
  • In the United States alone, colon cancer treatment costs about US$6.5 billion.
  • Millions of people are newly diagnosed with other meat-related cancers every year.
DIABETES
  • 246 million people are affected worldwide
  • An estimated US$174 billion spent each year on treatment
OBESITY
  • Worldwide 1.6 billion adults are overweight with 400 million more who are obese
  • Costs US$93 billion each year for medical expenses in the United States alone
  • At least 2.6 million people die annually from problems related to being overweight or obese
ENVIRONMENTAL
  • Use up to 70% of clean water
  • Pollute most of the water bodies
  • Deforest the lungs of the Earth
  • Use up 90% of the world's cereal
  • Cause world hunger & wars
  • 80% cause of global warming
PLUS MORE…
Supreme Master Ching Hai
February 28, 2008 - Austria
MASTER: Suppose you know something is poisonous to your children; will you deliberately give it to them, to harm them? No! So now all the evidence points out that meat is also poisonous and alcohol is bad. Just ban them outright. There’s no more discussion.

Make it your mission in life, to inform people about the danger of eating meat, and show them the solution.

Some Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet:
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower cholesterol levels
  • Reduce Type 2 diabetes
  • Prevent stroke conditions
  • Reverse atherosclerosis
  • Reduce heart disease risk 50%
  • Reduce heart surgery risk 80%
  • Prevent many forms of cancer
  • Stronger immune system
  • Increase life expectancy up to 15 years
  • Higher IQ
Conserve up to 70% clean water
Save over 70% of the Amazonian rainforest from clearance for animal grazing
A solution for world hunger:
  • Free up 3,433 million hectares of land annually
  • Free up 760 million tons of grain every year (half the world’s grain supply)
Consume 2/3 less fossil fuels than those used for meat production
Reduce pollution from untreated animal waste
Maintain cleaner air
Save 4.5 tons of emissions per US household per year
Stop 80% of global warming
PLUS MORE…

SAVE YOUR LIFE:
GO VEG. BE GREEN.


SOURCES:

  • Supreme Master Ching Hai
  • UN Food and Agriculture Organization
  • American Dietetic Association
  • Stockholm International Water Institute
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Carnegie Mellon University

Dr. Rajendra Pachauri,Chief of UN IPCC on a Win-Win Situation for the Planet: Go Vegetarian!



SupremeMasterTV: From Supreme Master Television, my question is for Dr. Pachauri. You once made a plea saying “Please eat less meat; meat is a very carbon intensive commodity.” Please can you explain to our global viewers, how eating less meat will help to curb global warming?

Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Well if you look at the entire commercialized meat cycle, let’s start with the killing of the animal itself. It has to be preserved, in a cool environment, and today this is a global business, we not only need refrigeration at source, we also need refrigeration at transportation. And then all the meat is stored in warehouses, from where it goes to retail outlets. And in retail outlets it’s kept again under refrigeration.

People buy meat, they buy a whole lot of it, take it home. Refrigerators have larger and larger freezers now. Why? Because you need to preserve meat. And I am not even talking about clearing of forest for pasture land! So if you were to take into account the entire chain, the entire cycle of meat production and consumption, it’s hugely intensive in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. And therefore, I always say that if you eat less meat you would be healthier and so would the planet!

VOICE: Dr. Pachauri later granted Supreme Master Television an interview, further sharing his advice.

Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: I think it would help the global community enormously, if we consume less meat. But I am only highlighting the fact that the entire meat cycle is very very intensive, in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. I would say Go Veg, Be Green and save our planet! And I'd like to say this to Supreme Master Television: Best wishes for your endeavors towards a sustainable world. Thank you.

VOICE: Thank you Dr. Rajendra Pachauri and all caring leaders of the future of our climate and our world environment. May we all rise to the task of reducing our carbon footprints by turning to healthier plant-based diets.

Introducing a Climate Friendly Diet: An Interview with Dr. Annika Carlsson-Kanyama



Welcome to Healthy Living on Supreme Master Television.

Today the urgent need to reverse climate change is widely recognized around the world, and many have come to realize that the most effective and immediate individual action is to adopt a nutritious, vegetarian, meaning animal-free, diet.

Studies on the relationship between a plant-based diet and a sustainable environment have opened up new frontiers for scientific research and presented new food choices in everyday life.
On this episode of Healthy Living, we speak with Dr. Annika Carlsson-Kanyama, a prominent scientist from Sweden’s Royal Institute of Technology.

Currently a researcher and project leader at the Energy and Environmental Security Group/FOI, in Stockholm, Dr. Carlsson-Kanyama also works an associate professor at the Department of Industrial Ecology.

She earned her PhD at Lund University and has written numerous articles about the environmental impacts of human consumption and production patterns.

Let’s now meet Dr. Carlsson-Kanyama.
SupremeMasterTV: You talked about the sources of greenhouse gases as being methane and also carbon.
Annika: Nitrous oxide; we add that too when nitrous oxide has to do with the production of nitrogen fertilizers, applying them and taking care of the manure.

So when you have cattle or pigs or whatever, you have to add the emissions of nitrous oxide as well.

Annika: They are much more potent, in a hundred-year perspective. Nitrous oxide is almost 300 times as potent as carbon dioxide, while I think methane is around 50 or 60 times as potent. So there is really a huge difference.

Annika: These two gases have caused quite a lot of the global warming already. And they are intimately related to the agricultural sector and to the livestock industry, actually.

I could refer to a study made by the Food and Agricultural Organization in late 2006, where they said that 18% of the global greenhouse-gas emissions are emitted by the animal industry.

That is more than all the cars in the world together, and a large part of that 18% is nitrous oxide and methane emissions actually.

So it is a big problem. And I think also, in the public debate about how consumers can mitigate climate change, you could drive your car less, you could have energy-efficient light bulbs, but eating less meat or eating less food that pollutes a lot in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases is hardly mentioned.

And it’s very important at least to raise awareness among consumers of this.
SupremeMasterTV: Can you walk us through the life cycle of the carbon emissions of red meat, versus a vegetable, a bean-based diet.
Annika: First of all, if you start with a bean, the bean life cycle, it starts with a growing bean somewhere on a field. A tractor is plowing the field, weeding, harvesting and so on, and there are emissions of carbon dioxide because diesel is used in the tractor.

We always calculate the inputs, the emissions from fertilizer production, if any; after that there is transportation, drying, there is packaging, there is retailing, there is transportation again.

These beans are taken home, they are cooked. Some electricity and gas are used and so on. And then you can also proceed to calculate the use for washing the
dirty pot if you want to.

So that’s a very simple life cycle, actually. If you look at the lifecycle of meat, any kind of meat, it starts in the same way; by producing beans, for example, soya beans, and producing, it could be rye, wheat or corn, anything.

And these products are then made into feed and fed to the animals in a pen or in a stable; slaughterhouse, chilling, packaging, retailing and finally being cooked.

So the lifecycle of meat is much more complicated than for any vegetarian product because it involves first producing the vegetable products that are then converted into feed. And that’s partly why it’s much more polluting to produce beef or pork or chicken than a vegetarian product.

Because sometimes there are ten kilos of feed needed to produce one kilo of beef, for example, so there are large emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of methane from the stomachs of the animals.
And we sort of add up all these emissions and it turns out that, for example, for one kilo of beef compared to one kilo of beans there can be a difference of a factor of 40 in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases per kilo.

HOST: When Healthy Living returns, we will continue our discussion with Dr. Carlsson-Kanyama on how our diet affects the environment. You are watching Supreme Master Television, please stay tuned.

HOST: On today’s Healthy Living, Dr. Annika Carlsson-Kanyama discusses the healthy, climate-friendly diet. One of her pioneering articles entitled, Climate change and dietary choices – How can emissions of greenhouse gases from food consumption be reduced?,

clearly establishes that a vegetarian, meaning animal-free diet, based on domestic food sources produces the lowest level of emissions for the highest level of nutritional value.

Annika: I’m very curious to see if the issue of an environmentally-friendly diet pattern is going to surface on the policy agenda.

SupremeMasterTV: How is it changing in Europe?

Annika: It is changing, actually, because I think it’s dawning upon us more and more that climate change may eventually, if we don’t curb emissions, cause such a challenge to society that we can’t cope.

I mean the latest projections or scenarios from the IPCC show that if emissions continue to increase, we may have a global temperature rise of more than six degrees by the end of this century.

That is a bigger difference than the last ice age, minus five degrees. We can’t even imagine that kind of world. There is a risk that sea levels will rise several meters during this century if things go bad, and we don’t want that to happen, absolutely not. That would be a disaster; we can’t imagine how we would cope with that.
So we have to look into new areas for mitigating climate change and we have to do it quickly. And diet, dietary pattern is one important step.

SupremeMasterTV: So can you tell us a little bit about how you help people to put together a climate-friendly diet?

Annika: I think when you can give some fairly simple and robust advice to people and that is to, in a climate-friendly diet, avoid red meat, for example. And also if you pick vegetables, pick those that are not transported by plane;

the same goes for fruit. And avoid those grown in greenhouses, heated greenhouses during the winter. And I think the most important advice is to eat the food you bring home; don’t throw it away, because that’s a waste of resources. So I think if you stick to this simple advice I think you can do a lot.

Annika: I think nowadays it’s very difficult for consumers to make decisions. If you know the way things grow, you know that if you see a long, green cucumber

in the winter in Sweden, you know that it has been grown in a greenhouse because it has to get 25˚C of temperature and clearly can not be grown outside in the winter in Sweden, and it can not be stored. We have other vegetables that can be stored throughout the winter if they are grown in summer, and they are very climate friendly.

Like for example, carrots or potatoes or onions or leeks or whatever. These are vegetables you can eat all year round. But long transportation, even across the oceans, if carried out by boat, is very climate-friendly. There are not huge emissions for taking something by boat from New Zealand to Sweden or the UK.
So I think it’s very well, because if you eat vegetable products, you can eat imported stuff as long as you avoid those taken by plane.

That’s my opinion. It’s still very much more climate-friendly than to eat meat anyway.

SupremeMasterTV: How is it going in Sweden, with all your work?

Annika: Since 2007, there has been an enormous media interest in this kind of work.
I think the time has come where producers have to take responsibility to declare the carbon footprint or whatever on their products.

Because if you go into any store here, or anywhere, there are thousands of products, you know.
And the content changes, the origin of these products change, so it’s only the producers that can really tell us about the carbon footprint.

It’s not something a researcher or a research group can sort of carry out.
Annika: But I think the time has come. The Swedish government called the food industry to a meeting quite recently and said,

“We wish you to develop a carbon-labeling system for the products.” And so I don’t know what’s going to happen, but it’s really on the agenda now.

HOST: We thank you, Dr. Annika Carlsson-Kanyama, for your diligent research in raising the public’s awareness on the importance of a plant-based diet
to save the environment. Healthy Living airs every Monday on Supreme Master Television. Thank you for being with us today.

An Interview with Dr. Kirk Smith, Professor of Global Environmental Health at UC Berkeley


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The effects of climate change is being felt all over the world - from increased severity and frequency of storms, rapid melting of glaciers, crop losses, and rising sea water levels, to name just a few. The golden state of California in the United States has experienced its own share of hardship from global warming such as droughts, heat waves, reduction of the snow pack in the Sierra Nevada mountain range.

Ranked as one of the top institutions of higher learning in the nation with 61 Nobel Laureates associated with the university, the University of California, Berkeley is pooling its vast resources of top scientists, researchers and professors to research and address the effects of global climate change.

Today, Supreme Master Television presents an interview with Dr. Kirk Smith, a professor of Global Environmental Health at UC Berkeley.

The university is also his alma mater where he received his bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees.
Dr. Smith holds the Maxwell Endowed Chair in Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley.
He is also founder and coordinator of the campus-wide Masters Program in Health, Environment, and Development.
His research work focuses on environmental and health issues in developing countries, particularly those related to health-damaging and climate-changing air pollution, and includes ongoing field projects in India, China, Nepal, and Guatemala.

He serves on a number of national and international scientific advisory boards including those for the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia, the Global Energy Assessment, and the WHO Air Quality Guidelines. He is on the editorial boards of a range of international journals and has published over 250 scientific articles and 7 books.

In 1997, Dr. Smith was elected as a member of the US National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors awarded to US scientists by their peers.
Supreme Master TV: Hallo and thank you for joining us today on Planet Earth: Our Loving Home. Today we have the good fortune of speaking with Dr. Kirk Smith.

He's a professor at the University of California, Berkeley and his main focus is Global Environmental Health.
So welcome, Dr. Smith.

Dr. Smith: Thank you. It's very nice to be here.

Supreme Master TV: Can you explain a little bit about your background, how you got into this field, how many years you've been working in the field of climate change and how it impacts public health?

Dr. Smith: Well, actually I was trained initially as an astrophysicist and expected a career in that, but back in the 70's, I thought well, perhaps I should do something that was a bit more relevant to world issues. So I took a long trip out through Asia and the Pacific, saw the conditions in the third world of people living in poverty and terrible environmental conditions, and came back and decided to change my career, to use my scientific background,but in environmental health issues.

So I've been working on these issues now more than 30 years. In the case of climate change, of course we were aware of that during the 70's and 80's,

but I became convinced around 1990 that this was a serious problem and so devoted a portion of my research to climate change issues in the third world.

The effects of climate change are not only see in severity of weather but with continued research such as that of Dr. Smith's, it is becoming more evident the impacts global warming has on human health.

Dr. Smith: People hear about heat stress in cities, you know. Are there going to be more episodes like in Paris a few years ago, or in Chicago a couple of years ago and this kind of thing? That's one category of impact. Another is the shift in disease vectors now, not mainly mosquitoes,

but others as well. So if malaria exists because of mosquito population in a certain area of Africa, and doesn't go up the mountains of Africa because it's too cold, but if you change the temperature, the osquitoes will go further up to the mountains.And for example, some of the major cities in Africa were purposely set at places in the mountains to avoid malaria. Nairobi and Harar are a few good examples, big cities now. Well, they're starting to get malaria in Nairobi now.

And you're going to see more of that, the extension of the disease vectors. Another is increase in diarrhea because of warming of sewage [which] gets into the environment and the bugs can grow better and that's considered to be one of the impacts. Another is sea level rise, causing displacement of coastal populations with health impacts associated with that.

Another is that climate change will increase outdoor air pollution, particularly ozone, because it's currently a function of temperature and sunlight.

So even in California, it's expected that we'll have more outdoor air pollution because of climate change.

Supreme Master TV: And then what about lung-related illnesses, such as pneumonia? Number one, I'd like to ask, if there would be an increase such as this.

And also what about psychological stress? Is there an increase in psychological disorders due to the changes in the atmosphere? And do you see those increasing?

Dr. Smith: Well, of course, I was just seeing something the other day that somebody was looking at the very reporting about climate change is causing stress. Yes, you and I at this moment are causing stress for somebody. So, stress is not all negative. It can get people to act,

so maybe that's good. But obviously, there can be a negative side to it. I think the big stress is going to be in these refugee populations.

If you get displaced because there are droughts, displaced because there are floods, displaced because of sea level rise, that's a very stressful situation.

And even, if there are no dseases, there usually are with the refugee populations, there will be lots of psychological stress. And so I think that is an impact.

Through his research, Dr.Smith and other scientists have already seen the major impacts of climate change on the health of society's most vulnerable citizens - children in developing nations.
There have now been systematic studies on the health effects of climate change. They found that as of the year 2000, which is, you know,now sometime passed, there were about 150,000 premature deaths around the world from climate change already. Now that assessment is being redone as we speak. I'm on the committee;

we're sure it's going to be much larger now; but the problem is not the 150,000. It's the fact that it's growing, and we expect a lot more. It gives you an idea of the distribution around the world of this impact. And 88% of that impact is in Third World children, because they're the ones that are already vulnerable, they're the ones that are malnourished, they're the ones that don't have access to medical care, they're the ones that live in bad environments already. And so they are the ones that are going to be suffering from climate change health effects. Continue The world will be more colorless for us.

It's going to cost more because, you know, we have to protect ourselves, air conditioning and so on, sea level rise, and all of this, but we're not dying from it. But there are people who die in the world because of it. And the biggest group is Third World children. It's one of the things I haven't heard many people talk about. The fact is that the impact, in terms of health of climate change, is actually children, in particular children in Africa, India, the poor places in Latin America.

And it's because of malaria, it's because of diarrhea, it's because of malnutrition, or another effect of climate change on health is changes in the crop productivity in areas where they're already right at the level, right at the edge of malnutrition.

And that's a big impact as well. Continue Malaria, malnutrition, diarrhea and the increase in sea level rise,and the increase in hurricanes, you know, severe weather events, which have severe health effects, those things are considered real.

On the other hand, there are more subtle things. For example, if you change the precipitation, the rainfall and the temperature, you are going to change the pattern of pollens.

Supreme Master TV: So then this would lead to longer allergy seasons or…?

Dr. Smith: Yeah, longer allergy seasons, new forms of pollen coming in that people might be more allergic to [leading to] exacerbation of asthma. We already have a very high rate of asthma in this country and many countries. So those kinds of impacts, you know, are being looked at as well. Supreme Master TV: And we're already seeing evidence of this is what you're saying.

Dr. Smith: Yeah, there's some evidence of this.

Supreme Master TV: It's not out in the future. It's here now.

Dr. Smith: Yeah. It's starting now, right. And it'll just get more and more obvious.

The Vital Role of Arctic Sea Ice: An Interview with Drs. Ted Scambos & Mark Serreze




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On February 28, the breakup of Antarctica's Wilkins ice shelf into the ocean, which measured 406 square kilometers, made headlines around the world.

This alarming discovering was made by Dr. Ted Scambos from satellite images. Dr. Scambos is the senior research scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado in the United States.

Dr. Mark Serreze is also a senior research scientist at NSIDC and a Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) fellow. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society.

Dr. Serreze has published numerous reports on his findings of the Arctic's shrinking sea ice cover.
Currently, he is evaluating the causes for the decline in Arctic sea ice.

On today's Planet Earth: Our Loving Home, Drs. Scambos and Serreze, share their expertise in an interview with Supreme Master Television.

Let's now hear from Dr. Serreze on his research in the area of glaciology, polar science and what the implications of their discoveries of Arctic sea ice melt mean in terms of climate change.

Supreme Master TV: My first question is why the Arctic Sea ice is so important to keep the ecological balance of the earth?

Dr. Serreze: we think of the Arctic, we can think of it as the refrigerator of the Northern Hemisphere climate system. Now, of course, part of that refrigerator is just located far to the North so that the sun's rays don't strike as directly as they would in the Equatorial regions. But another big part of this is the existence of that sea ice cover itself.

It is reflective so most of the sun's energy that hits that surface is bounced right back up into space again, and keeps the Arctic cool. But now we are warming the system up, and what we are starting to do is lose that sea ice, that reflective sea ice.

We are changing the nature of that Arctic refrigerator. The thing is, is that everything in the climate system is coupled together. Eventually what happens in the Arctic influences what happens down here; I am talking say at middle latitudes like of the Unites States.

Supreme Master TV: When you think of losing ice in the Arctic, what's the biggest impact?

Dr. Serreze: When we think of losing Arctic ice, we can think of two components of the ice. One of them would be that ice which is locked up in the ice sheet, and we are talking here about Greenland.

Now when we start to melt down Greenland, that has an impact on the sea level and there's strong evidence that that is in fact happening right now.The other component of what we call the aqueous sphere in the Arctic, is the sea ice.

Supreme Master TV: I see.

Dr. Serreze: Now the melting of the sea ice, loss of the sea ice itself does not have an effect on the sea level. Because that ice was already floating, it's very different than Greenland. However, what we are talking about is loss of a very large area of a very white surface, this white surface.
Albedo is the reflectivity of a surface. Snow and ice if you could see it has high albedo, [and when] we lose that sea ice cover, we reduce that Albedo, we make that surface darker, [so it] absorbs more of the sun's energy, the Arctic heats up.

But everything is connected, so if we change the Arctic sea ice cover, we change these patterns of heating, the atmospheric circulation responds to changes in heating.

So the argument is, you lose that sea ice cover you start to impact things like patterns of weather, patterns of participation outside of the Arctic.

We think of the Arctic sometimes as this faraway place, what happens there doesn't matter, but we are starting to learn is that it indeed does matter.

Supreme Master TV: This is why they talk about feedback and that type of thing where it just goes in a circle, like a downward spiral.

Dr. Serreze: Exactly, this is the whole concept of feedback. Even our earliest climate models of circulations have been telling us that as we start to increase greenhouse gas concentrations it's in the Arctic where we are going to see the changes first and it's in the Arctic

where those changes are going to be doubly pronounced, and a large part of that sensitivity is due to these feedback processes.

The idea is that once you hit the system with something, the effect of it starts to snowball, and the most important feedback in the Arctic is associated with this change in albedo, especially associated with this ice cover.

We warm up the climate a little bit by putting atmospheric greenhouse gases in it, we melt some of this highly reflective snow and ice cover, that means more of the sun's energy is absorbed, the Arctic becomes warmer as a result, that means more of the snow and ice cover melts, the Arctic becomes even
warmer so it's a feedback that we call it, a process that feeds on itself.

HOST: Dr. Ted Scambos specializes in studying the glaciers of Antarctica. He was first to discover the collapse of the Wilkins ice shelf in Antarctica via satellite images and lead a team of international scientists to study the region.

Dr. Scambos was a contributor of the report, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis for the UN's Nobel Peace Prize winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

He shares his knowledge on the significant role of ice in the polar regions here on Supreme Master elevision

Dr. Scambos: The only other component that's slightly different is the ozone hole in Antarctica, which is also caused by human activity, but the main event in 2002, I think, really was a turning point. It's an iconic image for saying that the Earth is changing because of warming; the blue patch of ice crumbling away, streaming across the ocean.

That's become an iconic image; it's been used hundreds of times by newspapers,books, magazine articles.
Supreme Master TV: There have been broke up of ice shelves that are much larger than that, still, in the past, in 1955 or something, I thought.

Dr. Scambos: In 1955, there was an iceberg that was sighted that was supposedly larger than the largest iceberg that's been mapped today.

I've looked at that newspaper story and I've looked at some of the ice shelves. That's normal, and Antarctica's been behaving that way for millions of years.

What's not normal is to see melt ponds on the surface, no sea ice in front of the ice shelf edge, and a sudden break-up, not just in one big piece, but crumbling down, disintegrating, absolutely blowing itself up within just a few weeks. The other thing is that the ice shelf doesn't recover from it.

There's no re-growth; there's no new shelf that starts to push out in the aftermath of one of these events.

HOST: The dramatic changes in the Arctic sea ice melts is a definite sign of the acceleration of global warming. Dr. Ted Scambos will further explain on other changes found in ice shelves of the polar regions when Planet Earth: Our Loving Home returns.Please stay tuned to Supreme Master Television.

Dr. Ted Scambos, senior research scientist at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center and the lead scientist who discovered the recent collapse of the Wilkins ice shelf speaks with Supreme Master Television.

Supreme Master TV: Do you see any immediate threat to the ice shelf now that you look at it?
Larsen A ice shelf fell off, right? And Larsen B already fell off recently, right? Are we watching C?


Dr. Scambos: Yes, there is a C, and there are plans to visit it as part of the International Polar Year.
There're two major efforts, one from Great Britain and a joint effort between Chile and the U.S. to visit Larsen C and set up measurements so that we know what it was like before it really began to retreat due to global warming. We thought that the only way that you would lose an ice shelf is part of global warming, but the only way you lose it is through this very slow process of calving and surface melting.

You have to wait for the warmth to reach the point where from the bottom of melting by the ocean and from the top of melting by the air, that both of those things to conspire to thin the ice shelf to zero.

But we didn't anticipate that there was this runaway process of fracturing that happens once you get the top soaked with water, the water actually acts to blow the ice shelf apart. Not by frost heat , this is something people in the north are familiar with, rocks can be split open by a film of water that gets into the crack.
It's not quite the same process. (Okay.)

If you get a tall column of water there's quite a bit of pressure at the bottom. And since ice is less dense than water or ice floats on water, the ice doesn't have the same level of pressure;

it's not as dense. So, at a bottom of a crevasse, it begins to fill with water because there's no water on the surface. At the bottom of that crevasse, you get to a point where the pressure is so high that just the weight of the heavy water inside the lighter ice is enough to crack through the ice and drive it all the way to the bottom. It was something that had been talked about for some glaciers but had never been - nobody had ever thought that it could happen on such a large scale so suddenly on an ice shelf. Right now, that's still the best model.
There were some other things;

people have talked about how the oceans are getting warmer, thinning the ice from underneath, how the ice shelf, because it was thinning, was starting to lose contact with coastline, starting to break away from the coast.

But in terms of what happened in March of 2002 and earlier in 1995 for the Larsen A, that had to do with water fracture in the ice very suddenly one hot summer. So, if we got one really hot summer between now and 2020, we could see the Larsen C do the very same thing.

Dr. Scambos: What we've seen is that ice shelves are good indicators of climate change because they respond not only to air temperature on the surface, where the rest of the ice sheet responds too, but also to warming in the ocean underneath. That starts to trim them underneath, so they respond very quickly. The bad news is that these ice shelves are all fed by these glaciers coming off of the large ice sheet.

When you break the ice shelf away, take that away, all of those glaciers accelerate very rapidly, flowing into the ocean, calving very rapidly and dumping ice that was on the continent out on the ocean.

This is another case where glaciologists were surprised beyond their wildest imagination as to how fast the system could respond. We went from four glaciers that fed the Larsen B that were flowing at about a rate of one meter per day, to feeding it at six to eight meters per day, within the space of one year, a year and a half, after the loss of the Larsen B ice shelf.

If that happens elsewhere in Antarctica where there are even larger glaciers, we'll see very sudden jumps in the rate of sea level rise.

Dr. Scambos: It's clear that ocean warming along the southern Greenland coast and also on the western side of Greenland, the part that's close to Canada, glaciers are responding very rapidly; they respond in particular to surface melting and to warmer oceans.

The trigger that appears in Greenland appears to be a warmer ocean, and then melting on the surface appears to accelerate the flow into the ocean, from things that were triggered by a warmer ocean.
In Antarctica right now, in the peninsula, it seems as though air temperature is leading the way,

but elsewhere in Antarctica, ocean temperature's creeping up at depth, because the surface water in Antarctica and the surface ice in Antarctica is still quite cold. But underneath that cold layer, warm water from elsewhere in the world, from the temperate parts of the world is seeping in, and if there's a very deep layer of ice that's

touching the ocean, it's being melted away and breaking up and accelerating, even though Antarctica is remaining quite cool so far.

So, in the poles, anybody who works in polar science, nobody questions whether or not we're in trouble, a warming world, because we see it in our field areas every year.

From CO2 to Climate Change: In-depth with Professor David Archer, PhD in Geophysics



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Recently, more and more scientific research indicates that huge amounts of methane and other greenhouse gases stored in the ocean, permafrost and Arctic tundra are in danger of being released into the atmosphere due to global warming.

In order to learn more about this issue, Supreme Master Television recently interviewed Dr. David Archer who holds a PhD in Geophysics. For the past 15 years, he has been a professor at the University of Chicago in Illinois, USA. Professor Archer is an expert on the subject of the global carbon cycle and specializes in studying ocean sedimentary processes. He teaches classes on global warming, environmental chemistry, and global geochemical cycles.

Dr. Archer has also authored a book on climate changed entitled, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. He is in the process of working on another book entitled, From Here to Eternity: Global Warming in Geologic Time. On Planet Earth: Our Loving Home today, we present to you Dr. Archer’s interview with Supreme Master Television.


Supreme Master TV: I know that one area of your research was in methane hydrates. Could you tell us what methane hydrate is and how it can become methane gas?

Dr. David Archer : Methane hydrate is a peculiar form of water ice where the water freezes into a cage like a soccer ball and the methane gas is inside the soccer ball, frozen and trapped in this ice, but if it becomes too warm, then this ice will melt and it can release the methane into the environment.

Supreme Master TV: What would trigger their release?

Dr. David Archer: Warming, from global warming, from rising CO2 concentrations. So carbon dioxide, CO2, is a greenhouse gas and it causes the surface of the earth to warm. This is very well understood. And eventually the warming at the surface can also make the deep ocean get warmer also. Now this takes a long time. If the methane from the hydrates were to escape and actually make it to the atmosphere methane is actually a much stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide is, and so this could lead to stronger warming than we would get just from the carbon dioxide.

Supreme Master TV: How much methane do you think there is stored in the earth?

Dr. David Archer: It’s a huge amount, actually. They measure amounts of carbon in units of a billion metric tons and so there are maybe one hundred or several hundred billion metric tons of carbon as oil and maybe another couple hundred of methane in traditional natural gas reservoirs: If you cook on a stove with gas that comes from a gas well. The largest fossil fuel type is coal and there are maybe five thousand gigatons, a billion metric tons of coal So coal is the largest of the fossil fuel types. But of this methane hydrate in the ocean, there may also be thousands of billion metric tons.

So there’s enough carbon there that it could double the amount of carbon that could ultimately be released into the atmosphere. It’s a huge amount. There’s so much of it that if a fraction of it, say 10%, were somehow to get out into the atmosphere all at once, it would be the same as changing the CO2 concentration by a factor of ten.

Dr. David Archer: If you could just take the earth and give it a shake, the ice that holds the hydrate that holds the methane floats in the water. It’s held at the bottom of the ocean because there’s mud sitting on top of it. But if you just shook everything up,it would float up and so much methane would be released that the climate would completely melt down.

Supreme Master TV: Where would these stores of methane hydrates be located around the earth?

Dr. David Archer: They tend to be just offshore, around the edges of the oceans, so not too deep not out in the middle of the ocean, because there’s not enough methane there to make the hydrates and not too shallow because the pressure isn’t high enough to make the hydrate either. So it’s sort of in middle depths in a ring around the ocean. The Arctic Ocean has more than its share of methane hydrate because the water is colder there so that means that hydrate can be found at shallower depths in the Arctic because the colder water can stabilize the hydrates

So shallower in the ocean means that the warming from global warming can reach that faster than it can everywhere else in the ocean. Also there is thought to be more intense warming in the high latitudes. Alaska and Siberia, it’s warming up there much more than it is here in Chicago because that’s just the way the climate of the earth works, and so the Arctic is the place to be the most interested in methane hydrates and how they might affect the climate.

Supreme Master TV: Speaking of the Arctic, are there methane hydrates in the permafrost soil?

Dr. David Archer: Yes, there are thought to be some methane hydrates in the permafrost but more important in the permafrost is peat, which is frozen organic carbon, you know grass, roots, and things like that. They’ve been frozen for many years, tens of thousands of years but now when they thaw, they decompose and they produce methane and also carbon dioxide.

One way that this happens is in lakes in the tundra in the Arctic, so a lake covering the surface melts down some of the peat underneath it and so you get these methane bubbles that come out very strongly so it’s possible that with more warming could be more lakes and then more methane released into the atmosphere.

Today on Planet Earth: Our Loving Home we have Dr. David Archer, a professor of geophysical sciences from the University of Chicago to discuss with us about climate change.During the 2007 summer ice melt season in the Arctic, the accelerated pace of ice melts greatly alarmed polar researchers in the scientific community.

From 2006 to 2007, they had never witnessed such a drastic reduction in summer ice melt. Furthermore, the disintegration of Antarctica’s Wilkins ice shelf on February 28, 2008, where a huge 406 square kilometers of ice crumbled into the ocean, drew global attention and concern to the rate of climate change exceeding worst case scenarios made by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Let’s now hear from Dr. Archer, who clearly defines the importance of the Arctic ice packs in stabilizing our climate.

Dr. David Archer: The sea ice plays a strong role in the climate of reflecting sunlight back out to space and so when you melt that sea ice, the sun shines in the Arctic year round, all 24 hours of the day in the summer time so it’s a lot of sunlight, and so you start absorbing that sunlight and that could change the climate of the Arctic very strongly and that could indirectly affect the methane. And also the Greenland ice sheet and the circulation of the North Atlantic and lots of other things in the high latitudes.

Supreme Master TV: I’m going to venture into asking you what is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air right now and what was it before we noticed that there was global warming going on

Dr. David Archer: The concentration in the year 1750, nobody could measure concentrations then but we have bubbles of ancient air trapped in ice cores so we can measure, we can know that at that time before human activity, the concentration of carbon dioxide was about 280 part per million. So out of a million molecules of air, 280 of them were carbon dioxide.

And today it is about 380 or 385, something like that. Before our period of warm climate in the last ice age, the CO2 concentration in the air was about 200, so going from 200 to 280 was enough to change the climate of the earth from the glacial world when there was two miles of ice over our heads here in Chicago to the interglacial world. So that was 200 to 280 and now we’ve gone all the way to 380. The ice core data that tells us about the value in 1750 or in the ice age now goes back 800,000 years and the CO2 concentration today is much higher than it’s ever been throughout that 800,000 year time period.

Supreme Master TV: So in the history of earth, We’ve had global warming before and we’ve recovered from it and we go into periods of glaciers and then we warm up again. Are we doing that? Do you think this is just another phase of the cycle?

Dr. David Archer: Well, in one sense you are right but in another sense you are using the word “we” and we as human beings have never endured climate changes such as the one that we are now causing before civilization and agriculture all these things happened in a time period of very, very stable climate called the Holocene of the last ten thousand years.

Before that was the glacial time, the glacial climate was much more turbulent and there were strong changes; just a few years the climate would change from one state to another and then back. But the time that civilized man has been in existence, the climate has been very stable and we’re now threatening to leave that stable climate, going into a climate such that we, as a species, have never even seen before.

Supreme Master TV: But this time rather than from volcanic eruptions emitting massive amounts of carbon dioxide, this is human induced, fossil fuel carbon dioxide accumulating.

Dr. David Archer: That’s absolutely right. We can measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and compare that with how much fossil fuel we’re burning and it’s very clear that the carbon dioxide concentration is going up because of human activity, it’s not because of volcanoes or anything like that.
Supreme Master TV: But the consequence would be similar to what we’ve seen in the past. The earth would warm up in a similar way and have similar results.

Dr. David Archer: Yes, there was a climate event 55 million years ago called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum event and it’s very unclear exactly what happened but there was some release of carbon dioxide from the earth into the atmosphere fairly quickly within somewhere between instantaneously and ten thousand years; they don’t really know how long it took but the amount of carbon that was released was comparable probably to the amount of coal that we have or the amount of methane hydrates.And then so the earth warmed and then it took 150,000 years for the climate to recover from that which is how long it will take actually for the earth to recover from global warming as well.

Carbon dioxide when you put in the air, it just accumulates in the atmosphere and ocean system and it takes a very long time for that to recover. The earth has mechanisms to stabilize its climate. It’s almost miraculous to imagine but it seems to be true but these mechanisms to stabilize the climate act very slowly; they take hundreds of thousands of years. And so we have it in our powers to change the climate of the earth for a very, very long time.

SUPREME MASTER TV: Is there a certain number a concentration level that once we reach we’ll see catastrophic events?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: I personally think that we’ve already passed a danger limit. The sea ice in the Arctic Ocean in 2007 just crumbled. The amount of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been decreasing over the years but then in 2007 it just crumbled. And the earthquake activity and the acceleration of the flowing ice in Greenland, I think these are signs that we are already in dangerous territory. Another way to specify or to define, to try to answer your question is to say when we can predict that things are not just possibly dangerous but likely to be harmful.

It’s very difficult to predict but people oftentimes define a dangerous temperature change as 2C warming over the natural level. So far the earth has warmed about 0.7C and even if the CO2 concentration in the air were to stop rising today and just stay at 380 forever, the temperature of the earth would continue to rise to about 1C. If we want to avoid warming more than 2C, we have to freeze the emission of carbon dioxide so industry has to stop growing.

Right now its growth is projected to be twice as fast, twice as much carbon dioxide emitted per year in 50 years as it is now. We need to freeze that and not let it grow, and then in the next couple of decades it has to start going down or else we will exceed a dangerous temperature change of 2C.

2C would be warmer than the earth has been in millions of years, so to try to predict where you would have droughts or whether hurricanes would get much more intense than they are today or whether sea levels could rise by tens of meters, it’s very difficult to make those kinds of predictions because that would be warmer than the earth has been in so long.

SUPREME MASTER TV: Would you say that there’s a certain point of no return if we warmed a certain number of degrees?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: Yes, I think there probably would be a point where the large ice sheets such as the Greenland ice sheet or the west Antarctic ice sheet would start to flow into the ocean and melt, raising the sea level. And it may already be starting; it’s possible. They can see acceleration of the ice, flowing faster than it used to, and they can hear earthquakes in the ice indicating that the ice is flowing faster than it used to. So if the ice sheets start to flow more quickly, that might be a point of no return.

SUPREME MASTER TV: What would the world look like, do you think, if we were to reach that point?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: Well, There have been times in the past like you mentioned before when CO2 concentrations were much higher than today and when there was basically no ice on the planet. So the sea level in such a hothouse world would be about 70 meters higher than today so if you just looked at a map of the earth, it would look different. Florida would be gone, for example, many of the river deltas would flood in such a situation.

It’s called a hothouse world; in a hothouse world there’s much less temperature difference between the equator and the poles so it’s basically almost tropical all the way to the poles. There are alligator teeth, crocodile teeth that they find, fossils in Siberia and in Alaska from these hothouse kinds of worlds. Crocodiles can’t live if it ever gets below freezing so that would be a world that would be tropical all the way to the poles.

But the details of how that climate could work or how many people it could support are difficult to predict, and what’s even harder to predict, actually, is the transition from our relatively cool world to such a world. The forests would all be in the wrong places, so do they just die or do new trees grow in to sort of keep up with the changes in climate? It’s very difficult to prepare for how society could cope with a transition like that.

SUPREME MASTER TV: It does seem like the problem of global warming is pointing us in a new direction where we would have to cooperate more, nations would have to be benevolent towards each other. (Yes) And even individuals would need a change in lifestyle, hopefully for the better.

DR. DAVID ARCHER: I think that’s true, although I think they could change the energy infrastructure so that when you plug something into the wall it comes from a carbon-free energy source. I mean individual virtue is a powerful thing in terms of changing energy use but it’s not going to be enough.

We have to stop building these coal-fired power plants or else all is lost. I feel that the United States should take the lead in making these kinds of changes. And I also feel that we have the resources that we can begin to develop alternative energy technology and then make that available to the rest of the world.

SUPREME MASTER TV: So you would say to the leaders of the government and the policy makers that the time to act is now?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: Yes. The last I heard there were 160 new coal-fired power plants that are being planned or designed or built in the U.S. alone and in China they are building a new coal-fired power plant every week and if they build all those things then all is lost. Those power plants are a crime against humanity is what I would tell the leaders.

SUPREME MASTER TV: Will we see like solar energy or hydrogen energy so that it’s green, so that we have energy that does not generate greenhouse gases at all?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: Yes. That would be much better. Hydrogen isn’t a source of energy; it’s more like a way of storing energy. We have to make hydrogen, so maybe you could use solar cells to split water to make hydrogen and then use hydrogen in a car or whatever, but there’s no place to sort of mine hydrogen exactly so it’s not a primary energy source.

But there’s lots of sunlight; there’s a thousand times more sunlight that hits the earth every day than we actually use in all of our energy production, so if we can start harvesting that efficiently that would solve all of our needs. I’ve read that to supply the United States would require covering about 2% of the land area of the United States, which is about how much area is covered by roads. So it sounds like a lot but if you told somebody a hundred years ago that 2% of the land would be covered by roads they would say that that was a lot too. They would probably say that it was impossible.

SUPREME MASTER TV: Do you stay up nights worrying about global warming?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: Yes, sometimes I do. I feel like we have the technology to avoid global warming. We know of alternative ways of extracting energy from coal, for example, and we’re starting to learn how to build windmills and solar cells and develop energy efficiency. So I don’t think it’s impossible to avoid. I think technologically we know how to do it but this is a more difficult social problem than humankind has ever faced before because it requires global cooperation.

SUPREME MASTER TV: There are two other University of Chicago researchers who have shown that adopting a vegetarian diet is one of the most effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Do you have any comments on their research?

DR. DAVID ARCHER: They looked at this very carefully. It’s very clear that when you grow grain and then feed it to animals and then eat the animals, you lose 90% of the energy from the original grain, and so not only can you feed fewer people on the agriculture that you have but as they discovered, it also requires a lot more fossil-fuel energy to make that happen. It makes that much difference to the CO2 emissions.

Along with the United Nation’s report and many other scientists’ observations, it is clear that adopting a vegetarian diet would be one of the most effective actions an individual can take to help reduce the effects of global warming.We sincerely thank, Dr. David Archer, for your invaluable research in the science of geophysics in providing us with further information on our Earth and the effects of climate change.